During 1916 Einstein produced his General theory of relativity which to this day remains the standard Model for Gravitation 20 years on he and his long time friend Nathan Rosen published a paper showing implicit in the General relativity form is a curved space structure that can join two distant regions of space time through a wormhole like curved spacial short cut.
The whole idea of the paper was not to promote faster than Light travel or inter universal travel but to explain particles like electrons as space tunnels threaded by electric lines of force .
The Einstein Rosen bridge is based on General Relativity and work done by Schwarzschild in solving Einsteins equations,one of the solutions to these equasions was the prediction of Black Holes
8 May 1935; published in the issue dated July 1935
The writers investigate the possibility of an atomistic theory of matter and electricity which, while excluding singularities of the field, makes use of no other variables than the gμν of the general relativity theory and the ϕμ of the Maxwell theory. By consideration of a simple example they are led to modify slightly the gravitational equations which then admit regular solutions for the static spherically symmetric case.
These solutions involve the mathematical representation of physical space by a space of two identical sheets, a particle being represented by a “bridge” connecting these sheets. One is able to understand why no neutral particles of negative mass are to be found. The combined system of gravitational and electromagnetic equations are treated similarly and lead to a similar interpretation. The most natural elementary charged particle is found to be one of zero mass.
The many-particle system is expected to be represented by a regular solution of the field equations corresponding to a space of two identical sheets joined by many bridges. In this case, because of the absence of singularities, the field equations determine both the field and the motion of the particles.
The many-particle problem, which would decide the value of the theory, has not yet been treated.
A Black hole is a region of space to which nothing can escape its Gravitational pull not even Light,when a star comes to the end of its life it implodes and opens up a Black hole which gathers up Light, particles energy and this is how new stars are formed .
Black holes are the evolutionary endpoints of stars at least 10 to 15 times as massive as the Sun. If a star that massive or larger undergoes a supernova explosion, it can leave behind a fairly massive burned out stellar remnant. With no outward forces to oppose gravitational forces, the remnant will collapse in on itself. The star eventually collapses to the point of zero volume and infinite density, creating what is known as a “singularity”.
As the density increases, the path of light rays emitted from the star are bent and eventually wrapped irrevocably around the star. Any emitted photons are trapped into an orbit by the intense gravitational field; they will never leave it. Because no light escapes after the star reaches this infinite density, it is called a black hole
Curiously, the Schwarzschild radius had already been derived (with the correct result, but an incorrect theory) by John Michell in 1784. The English geologist realized that it would be theoretically possible for gravity to be so overwhelmingly strong that nothing, not even light could escape. To generate such gravity, an object would have to be very massive and unimaginably dense. At the time, the necessary conditions for “dark stars”, as Michell called them, seemed physically impossible. His ideas were published by the French mathematician and philosopher Pierre Simon Laplace in two successive editions of an astronomy guide, but were dropped from the third edition. In Laplace’s 1795 edition, he put forward the following equation saying what the mass and radius would have to be to form a black hole.
The basic idea of wormholes dates nearly as far back as the concept of general relativity. Barely a few months after Einstein wrote down his equations, the first exact solution of the Einstein equations was found by Karl Schwarzschild.This has a very important role in the verification of general relativity in the solar system. One of the remarkable predictions of Schwarzschild’s geometry was that if a mass, M, were compressed inside a critical radius, rs, nowadays called the Schwarzschild radius (the farthest visible point), and then its gravity would become so strong that not even light could escape. The Schwarzschild radius, rs, of a mass, M, is given by Where G is Newton’s gravitational constant and c is the speed of light.
The complete Schwarzschild geometry consists of a black hole, a white hole, and two Universes connected at their horizons by a wormhole. The name “black hole” was invented in 1968 by John Archibald Wheeler. Before Wheeler, these objects were often referred to as ‘black stars’
The first episodes of Star Trek had been made before this, and contain the phrase “black star”
It was Austrian Ludwig Flamm who had realised that Schwarzschild’s solution (called the Schwarzschild Metric) to Einstein’s equations actually describes a wormhole connecting two regions of flat space-time; two universes, or two parts of the same universe.
A white hole (from the negative square root solution inside the horizon) is a black hole running backwards in time. Just as black holes swallow things irretrievably, so white holes spit them out. However white holes cannot exist, since they violate the second law of thermodynamics
General Relativity is time symmetric. It does not know about the second law of thermodynamics, and it does not know about which way cause and effect go. However we do. The negative square root solution outside the horizon represents another Universe. The wormhole joining the two separate Universes is known as the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
The prediction of the existence of black holes did not trouble Einstein, but he found that the black holes contained a singularity at its centre; this is a point of infinite density where time comes to an end. At the point of the singularity, all the known laws of physics start to breakdown. For Einstein this was a very troubling thought and he did not like them, the idea that they were shielding from the outside world by the event horizon of the black hole was not enough for him and he did not like the “concept that if you can not see it then do not worry about it.”
So he went to work with Nathan Rosen and in 1935 they produced a paper that produced evidence for a bridge between a black hole and a white hole, this was called the Einstein-Rosen Bridge.
In 1962 John Wheeler discovered that the Einstein-Rosen bridge space-time structure was dynamically unstable in field-free space. They showed that if such a wormhole somehow opened,it would close up again before even a single photon could be transmitted through it, thereby preserving Einsteinian causality.
This work lead there to being two different classifications of wormholes: Lorentzian wormholes and Euclidean wormholes
Lorentzian wormholes are essentially short cuts through space and time but they instantaneously close unless some form of negative energy can hold them open. It is possible to produce small amounts of negative energy in the laboratory by a principle known as the Casimir effect. However this energy would not be enough to keep open a wormhole.
A by product of Lorentzian wormholes would be that objects passing through them would not only be moved spatially but also temporally
Lorentzian wormholes come in at least two varieties:
1.Inter-universe wormholes, wormholes that connect ‘our’ universe with ‘another’ universe
2. Intra-universe wormholes, wormholes that connect two distant regions of our universe with each other
Another form of Worm hole is even Stranger called Euclidean wormholes that exist in Imaginary Time and are intrinsically virtual quantum mechanical processes .
In fact this idea, of using a ‘wormhole’ to travel large distances was used by Sagan in writing a novel ‘Contact’ in 1985. In his novel he wanted a method of moving a character faster than the speed of light though not in a manner violating Relativity.
Steven Hawking theories
Stephen Hawkings great discovery was that the mysterious regions in space we call black holes radiate heat through quantum effects. Hawking has said that “black holes are not really black after all: they glow like a hot body, and the smaller they are, the more they glow.” Hawking’s famous theory says that the temperature of a black hole varies inversely to its mass. The mathematician Louis Crane proposed a scifi-like scenario back in 1994 that billions of years in the future, after all the stars have burned out, that small black holes could be created to generate heat and guarantee survival of the species.
in Hanover, New Hampshire a bold team of researchers at Dartmouth College propose a new way of creating a reproduction black hole in the laboratory on a much-tinier scale than their celestial counterparts. The new method to create a tiny quantum sized black hole would allow researchers to better understand what physicist Stephen Hawking proposed more than 35 years ago: black holes are not totally void of activity; they emit photons, which is now known as Hawking radiation.
“Hawking famously showed that black holes radiate energy according to a thermal spectrum,” said Paul Nation, an author on the paper and a graduate student at Dartmouth. “His calculations relied on assumptions about the physics of ultra-high energies and quantum gravity. Because we can’t yet take measurements from real black holes, we need a way to recreate this phenomenon in the lab in order to study it, to validate it.”
The researchers showed that a magnetic field-pulsed microwave transmission line containing an array of superconducting quantum interference devices, or SQUIDs, not only reproduces physics analogous to that of a radiating black hole, but does so in a system where the high energy and quantum mechanical properties are well understood and can be directly controlled in the laboratory.
“We can also manipulate the strength of the applied magnetic field so that the SQUID array can be used to probe black hole radiation beyond what was considered by Hawking,” said Miles Blencowe, another author on the paper and a professor of physics and astronomy at Dartmouth.
“In addition to being able to study analogue quantum gravity effects, the new, SQUID-based proposal may be a more straightforward method to detect the Hawking radiation,”